Marketing is all about communication.
To communicate with consumers, brand managers use several types of media. The most common types of media used for marketing strategies are:
- Direct mail
- Television ads
- Newspaper and magazines ads
- Radio ads
- Digital ads
- Sales promotions and events
- Billboard ads and signs
- Search Engine Optimisation
- social media
- Movie ads
Each type of media has its own strengths and weaknesses, and some work better for certain products or services than others. Here is a brief overview of the most common types of marketing media – but first, let’s get a few basics out of the way.
The term media is plural for medium.
Media is anything that carries a message from the marketer to the consumer. It comes in two broad forms:
- Traditional media like TV, radio, and newspapers
- Digital media like websites, emails, and social media
Different Types of Media
Media is broadly classified into three main categories:
- Out-of-Home Media
Broadcast: As the name implies, this type of media uses electronic transmissions to reach a spread-out audience.
It includes TV and radio ads.
While some people still get their news from TV and radio broadcasts, different sources reveal that it wouldn’t be long before the internet takes over.
Print: Print is the use of paper and ink to share information. In traditional marketing, print is always an offline activity. It includes billboards, posters, magazines, flyers, direct mailers, newspapers, and journals.
Print is the oldest form of media, and despite being threatened by the internet, it is still quite popular.
Digital: This is the newest form of media.
It refers to any media you can experience online, on websites, emails, blogs, social media, and mobile devices.
Digital media is simply transforming the way we communicate with one another.
The internet didn’t quite take off until the 1990s and early 2000s when broadband became more widespread, and people started using laptops and other mobile devices.
Now, almost everyone has some form of digital media in their lives.
Internet Growth Over the Years
|Year||Number of Users (in Millions)||% of the Global Population||Year||Number of Users (in Millions)||% of the Global Population|
|2005||1, 008||15.7%||2015||3, 366||46.4%|
|2006||1, 093||16.7%||2016||3, 611||49.2%|
|2007||1, 319||20.0%||2017||4, 156||54.4%|
|2008||1, 574||23.5%||2018||4, 313||55.6%|
Out-of-Home Media: Out-of-home, or OOH, media is any medium people view outside their homes. That includes billboards, bus stop benches, subway station ads, and taxi top ads.
Given the nature of OOH media, companies usually use it for branding, creating awareness, and motivating people to take action. They’re pretty standard in big cities but are slowly making their way into small towns and suburbs.
Factors to Consider When Choosing Media
When choosing the right media for your marketing efforts, you need to consider a few factors:
The demographics of your target market
It refers to the age, gender, education level, and income level of your target market, as well as their interests and hobbies, where they work, and what kind of family life they have.
It would also help to consider how much you’re willing to spend on media advertising. For example, TV and radio ads cost a lot more than print ads, so they aren’t usually suitable for small businesses with tight budgets.
The message you want to send
When choosing a medium, consider the message you want to convey to your target market and its appropriateness for the target audience. For example, if you’re a funeral home, it wouldn’t be appropriate to advertise your services on a children’s TV show.
Your product or service
Certain products and services are more suited for certain media than others. For example, a luxury car would be more suited for an ad in a high-end magazine than a low-budget newspaper.
This factor considers how easily your target market can access the media. For example, if your target market is young people who live in a big city, then out-of-home media would be a good choice. If your target market is older people living in the suburbs, print media would be a better option.
Your Marketing Goals
You also want to consider your marketing goals and the media you use. For example, if your goal is branding and awareness, then TV and radio ads might be a good option because they make it easier for someone to remember your business name and message.
Whether the medium aligns with your company’s values
The medium you choose must align with your core values as a company. For example, if your company values sustainability, you might want to consider using digital or out-of-home media that promotes environmentalism.
The 10 Most Effective Types of Media Used in Marketing Strategies
Newspaper advertising is one of the oldest forms of print media. Its history dates back to the 1700s, when Benjamin Franklin began publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette.
Newspapers are still widely used because they’re relatively inexpensive and easy to produce and distribute.
There are two camps on the effectiveness of newspaper advertising: one group believes it’s not effective, while the other thinks it is.
The first group argues that newspapers were phased out by the internet, that their readership is declining, and that they’re not as effective as they once were or as other forms of advertising such as TV and radio.
The second group argues that newspapers are steadfast in delivering news and can be highly effective marketing channels if used correctly.
The thing is, as long as newspapers are about content and storytelling and less about ads, they’ll be around.
Even better, newspaper companies are also adjusting to the digital age by introducing apps like the Boston Globe, allowing users to read newspaper articles on their mobile devices.
Newspaper Advertising Market Share in Singapore (from 2012 to 2022 and beyond)
Top Newspapers in Singapore
It’s the top English language daily in Singapore. It has a total readership of 300,000-400,000.
Established in 1845
Business Times is a business-centred newspaper focusing on finance and economics. It has a circulation range of 25,000 and 50,000.
Established in 1976
Lianhe Zaobao is the leading Chinese-language broadsheet newspaper in Singapore. It has a daily circulation range of 100 000 and 200 000.
Established in 1983
Shin Min Daily News is a Chinese-language newspaper, popular among younger readers, with a daily circulation of almost 120,000 copies.
Established in 1967
A tabloid-style newspaper with a daily circulation of about 300,000 copies: it features sports, entertainment news, and lifestyle stories.
Established in 1988
Berita Harian is a Malay-language newspaper owned by the Strait Times. The newspaper commands a daily readership of over 100 000.
Established in 1957
Tamil Murasu is a Tamil-language newspaper with a circulation of over 10,000 copies.
Established in 1935
A tabloid-style newspaper published in English with a readership range of 200,000 and 300,000.
Established in 2000
The publisher of two English-language tabloid newspapers: The New Paper and Today. It also publishes three magazines.
Pros and Cons of Newspapers
- Large Volume of Readers: More than 2.5 billion people read the newspaper in print and 600 million in digital format. That’s close enough to rival television viewership.
- Credible: Newspapers have a high level of credibility, hence more likely to increase consumer trust in your company.
- High Frequency: New editions are published every day, which means your message can be communicated to the target market more frequently.
- Broad Reach: Newspapers have a wide reach and can be distributed nationally or internationally.
- Timing Flexibility: Newspaper advertisements can be booked at short notice and changed or cancelled without penalty.
- Geographic specificity: You can target readers within your business’s geographic vicinity, which means you don’t have to spend as much on distribution.
- Digital Extension: Nowadays, newspaper companies are also launching websites and apps that provide content online. That gives you the option to publish your advertisement in print and digital formats.
- Smaller Target Market: Not everyone in the country will read your ad, so you only reach a small portion of the overall population.
- Short Period of Relevance: Readers will see the ad for a brief period before it’s replaced by newer content.
- Less Engaging: Compared to other forms of advertising such as TV or radio, newspaper advertisements are generally less engaging for readers.
- Only Works if the Audience Can Read: This form of advertising won’t reach illiterate or blind people.
Like newspapers, magazines offer a high level of credibility and reach a large audience. They’re also widely read by the affluent and have a longer lifespan than newspapers.
There are a few different types of magazines: consumer, trade, custom, entertainment, celebrity, association, etc.
Magazines come in two broad categories: Business-related and Consumer-related.
Business-related magazines: Business-related magazines target people in specific industries or professions. They usually contain articles about current trends, best practices, and case studies.
Consumer-related magazines: Consumer-related magazines are aimed at the general public. They cover a wide range of topics such as health, lifestyle, fashion, sports, etc.
Top Magazines in Singapore
Her World is Singapore’s number #1 women magazine. It’s published by Singapore Press Holdings (SPH). In 2003, it was rated the world’s best-selling magazine, with a circulation of 141 000 copies.
Language: English and Malay
Singapore Business Review is published by Charlton Media Group. It has a circulation of 26000 and a readership of 83,000. The magazine covers various business topics, from conferences and roundtables to Singapore business events.
Asian Scientist is published by Wildtype Media Group Pte Ltd. It’s run by a team of professional medical and science professionals. The magazine publishes medical breakthroughs, health and fitness advice, job listings for scientists, etc.
8Days is a lifestyle magazine published by Mediacorp. It covers topics such as movies, food, fashion, etc. It’s published weekly and is mainly read by young people and the PMEB crowd.
Nüyou is a young women’s magazine published by SPH. It covers beauty, health, fashion, relationships, etc. There’s a Malaysian edition of the magazine.
Language: English and Chinese
The Pros and Cons of Magazines
- Higher-quality content: Compared to newspapers, magazines provide readers with more engaging and higher-quality content.
- Large audience: Magazines have a diverse audience spanning different demographics.
- Targeted Lifestyles: Magazines can be customised to target specific lifestyles, interests, and demographics.
- Longer Lifespan: Magazines have a longer lifespan than newspapers, which means your advertisement has a longer window of exposure.
- Higher Levels of Engagement: Magazines are highly engaging. Unlike newspapers, readers are more likely to read an entire article, not just skim through the headlines.
- Higher Levels of Engagement: Magazines are highly engaging. Unlike newspapers, readers are more likely to read an entire article, not just skim through the headlines.
- Higher Cost: Magazine ads are generally more expensive than newspapers’.
- Lower Frequency: Magazines are published less frequently than newspapers.
- Requires Literacy: Magazines require readers to be literate to understand its content. That limits its reach to a literate demographic.
As the name suggests, direct mail is any form of marketing communication sent directly to the consumer, usually by post.
Direct mail can take many forms: coupons, brochures, catalogues, cards, flyers, letters, etc.
Direct mail can be segmented based on location and demographic profiles. It allows businesses to target specific groups within their market.
How to Make Direct Mail Work for You
Direct Mail is typically used to build brand awareness, generate leads, acquire new customers, and create repeat purchases.
It’s effective because it allows businesses to target specific groups of people without incurring extra costs.
Direct mail can be segmented along demographics (i.e., age/gender/income), lifestyle (i.e., pet-owners, eco-friendly consumers), and psychographics (i.e., interests, activities).
Here are some quick pointers on how to make direct mail work for you:
- Start with Existing Customers: You can’t just mail random people and expect them to buy from you. If your recipients don’t find your mail relevant, they’ll throw them away without a second thought. Start with your existing customer list, and segment them based on demographics, lifestyle, and psychographics.
According to an SBA report, 68% of consumers will throw away a letter from a retailer or brand if they have never heard about it before. On the other hand, 76% will talk about a mail if it’s from a brand they have purchased from before.
- Segment Your Mailing List: You should also be segmenting your mailing list just as you would with your website’s visitors. That will allow you to target specific groups within your market with greater accuracy.
- Use Tested Copy: Direct mail doesn’t work if your copy isn’t up to par. Always test different types of copy (i.e., value proposition, USP, discount offers, etc.) before you send out the mailers.
- Style them Right: Your direct mail design is just as important as the copy. Make sure it’s visually appealing and easy to read. Keep the text brief, the photography eye-catching, and the layout streamlined.
Pros and Cons of Direct Mail
The Pros of Direct Mail
- Allows you to Target Specific Audiences: Companies can filter mailing lists based on zip code, family size, income levels, etc. You can identify families most likely to buy from you and then send them a direct mail.
- Can Scale with Your Business: Direct mail is scalable, which means you can send out more targeted mails as your business grows.
- One-on-One Communication: Direct Mail gives companies the chance to communicate with consumers personally. It’s not just an email or ad campaign; it’s an actual, physical letter to a customer. That makes people more likely to take it seriously and read the letter’s contents.
- Opportunity for creativity: Unlike other forms of advertising, direct mail allows for more creativity. You can be as imaginative as you want with the design and content of your mail.
- Personalisation: You can also personalise your mailers with the recipient’s name and other demographic information.
The Cons of Direct Mail
- Cost: The cost of direct mail can be prohibitive for some businesses. Printing, postage, and production costs can add up quickly.
- Time-consuming: Creating effective direct mailers takes a significant amount of time and effort. You need to create a compelling copy, find a direct mail printing company, and ensure you have the right mailing list.
- Deadline: It takes anywhere from 2-3 days to 5 weeks to deliver your letters. If you’re looking to build brand awareness quickly, this is not the way to do it.
Broadcast media refers to advertising mediums that use electronic signals to reach a large audience. That includes television, radio, etc.
Broadcast media is still one of the most effective ways to reach vast audiences. It’s especially popular with older generations who are more likely to watch TV or listen to the radio.
Here are the different types of broadcast media you can use to market your business or products:
Television advertising is a great way to reach a large, diverse audience. It’s especially popular with businesses that want to build brand awareness or launch a new product.
Every country has its own set of television networks. For instance, in the United States, some of the major TV networks include ABC, CBS, and NBC.
Some of the most popular television shows are:
- American Idol
- The Today Show
- The Price is Right
- Big Bang Theory
- Dancing with the Stars
Singapore is no exception. Some of the most popular TV networks in Singapore are:
- Channel 5
- Channel 8
- Starhub Cable Vision
- Mediacorp TV12
Some of the most popular TV shows in Singapore are:
- Crazy Rich Asians
- The Mind of Mencia
- Doctor Who
When planning a television advertising campaign, you need to consider:
- Target Audience: Who is your target audience? What TV networks do they watch?
- Length of Campaign: How long do you want your campaign to run for?
- Production Costs: How much will it cost to produce the commercial? Will you be producing it in-house or hiring a professional?
- Airtime Costs: How much will it cost to air your commercial?
How Television Ads Work
You can purchase TV commercials as spots packages. Normally, a TV ad runs as a 30- or 60-seconds spot.
You start by preparing a TV commercial. That can be a simple as a short video clip or a more extended commercial to air during breaks.
Then, it would help if you found a TV network that will air your commercial. You can either negotiate a deal with a specific TV network or buy airtime from an advertising agency.
Alternatively, you can present the TV commercial and your budget to an advertising sales rep who will prepare a placement schedule and propose it to you. This schedule will tell you when your commercial will air and for how long.
If you approve the schedule, the rep will create a contract and send it to you for signature. Once you sign the contract, your commercial will start airing on TV.
When to Use TV Commercials
TV commercials are ideal when launching a new product, service, or business. It’s also helpful when building brand awareness.
You shouldn’t use TV ads if:
Your target audience doesn’t watch TV. Figure out where they are watching videos, and plan your campaign accordingly.
You have limited funds or time. A 30-second commercial can cost between $50 to $3500 for a single air.
You want the Ad to Run Fast. TV ads take time to produce and air. So, it will be a while before you finalise everything and the ads start running.
Pros and Cons of TV Ads
- High-viewership Rates: With so many people watching TV, your ad has a high chance of being seen.
- Effective When Planned Correctly: TV ads work best if you know your target audience and when they typically watch television.
- The Ads Appear Automatically: No effort is required on the viewers’ side.
- Room for Creativity: You can use TV commercials to promote funny videos or exciting game shows. It allows for creative, shocking, and emotional ads that tug at your heartstrings.
- You Can Target Key Demographics: Marketers can research time blocks, dayparts, and the demographics that watch certain TV shows.
- You Can’t Control When People Watch: You can’t control when people choose to tune in. So, you have to schedule your TV commercial for a time when viewers are most likely to be watching TV.
- Costly: With the high production costs and airtime fees, TV commercials are almost unattainable for small businesses.
- Lengthy: It can take a while to produce and air a TV commercial. So, make sure you start planning well in advance.
So, what’s the verdict?
TV commercials are an effective way to reach a large audience. However, they are expensive and time-consuming to produce. It would be best to use them only when you clearly understand your target audience and when they typically watch TV.
Radio is a great way to get your message out. One of the most popular radio networks in Singapore is SPH’s One FM 91.3.
With so many listeners tuning in every day, you can reach a massive audience with just a 30-minute commercial. And since most people listen while driving or commuting, it allows for seamless integration with your target audience.
How Radio Ads Work
Radio ads are great when you’re launching a new product or service. You can also use the radio to run updates about your company or introduce new products.
To prepare a radio ad, think about the message you want to convey and make sure it fits within 30 seconds to a minute. Radio ads tend to be short and snappy, so you should write with that in mind.
You can buy airtime from an advertising agency or directly from the radio network, just like TV ads. Prices vary depending on the number of listeners and factors such as local vs. national broadcasts.
However, it doesn’t cost as much as TV airtime, and you can usually get more airtime for your money.
When to Use Radio Ads
Radio ads are great for reaching a large audience quickly and easily. They’re perfect for launching new products or services and providing updates about your company.
Pros and Cons of Radio Ads
- Reach a Large Audience Quickly: With so many people listening to the radio, you can reach a large audience quickly and easily.
- Inexpensive: Radio advertising is much more affordable than TV ads.
- Easily Integrates with Other Media: Radio ads can be easily integrated with other forms of marketing, such as print ads, social media posts, or online videos.
- Vast Coverage: Radio networks often run at a national level, which gives you more extensive coverage.
- Ability to Reach Low-income Listeners: Radio is especially popular among low-income listeners.
- Mass Appeal: Radio ads can be heard by everyone and anyone. So, it’s harder to target your core demographic and improve the effectiveness of your ad.
- Short Attention Spans: People typically don’t spend too much time listening to the radio, usually while driving or commuting. So, it’s harder to pack lots of information into a 30-second commercial.
- Limited Creative Opportunities: Radio ads are great for informing people about your business, but not much else. You can’t use them to shock people or connect emotionally with the audience like you can with TV ads.
So, what’s the verdict?
Radio ads are great if you want to reach a large audience quickly and easily. They’re perfect for launching new products or services and providing updates about your company. You can integrate them with other forms of marketing, such as print ads, online videos, and social media posts.
Movies are a great way to promote your company or product. You can use them to build an emotional connection with the audience, generate word-of-mouth publicity, and create a sense of urgency.
There are two main ways to go about it when it comes to marketing movies: advertising and sponsorship.
Sponsorship is when you partner with a movie studio to promote your product or company. In exchange, the studio features your product or logo in the film.
This type of marketing increases brand awareness and generates word-of-mouth publicity. However, it’s not as effective at driving sales as advertising is.
Movie theatres run movies ads. You can run ads before, during, or after the movie. They’re great for building awareness about your brand and driving sales.
The downside is that they can be expensive, and it’s harder to target your core demographic.
When to Use Movies Ads
Movie placement or sponsorship ads are great when you have a huge budget and want to target large, multinational audiences. They’re especially effective at promoting new products and generating word-of-mouth promotion.
On the other hand, movie theatre ads are great when you want to reach an audience within a specific geo-location or when you’re advertising for something fun to do, like on weekends.
- Great Reach: With tens of millions of people going to the movies every week, you can reach a large audience quickly and easily.
- Creative Opportunities: You can make your ads creative and interesting to generate word-of-mouth publicity.
- Highly Targeted Market: People go to the movies because they want to be entertained or kill time. So, you can target people looking for fun things to do.
- Limited Distractions: People are typically engaged with the movie they’re watching, which means they’re more likely to pay attention to your ad.
- Targeted Geographic Area: You can target specific movie theatres based on their location.
- High Cost: Advertising in movie theatres can be expensive, especially if you want to run ads before, during, and after the movie.
- Short Duration: Ads typically only run for a few weeks.
- Limited Reach: Not everyone goes to the movies every week. So, your reach is limited compared to other forms of advertising.
Digital media is any form of communication that exists in a digital format. That includes websites, social media platforms, online videos, and email marketing.
A Brief History of Digital Media
Digital media was first introduced in the early 90s. However, it wasn’t until the late 2000s that it began to take off.
Today, over 4.66 billion people actively use the internet worldwide. And, that number is expected to increase to about 5 billion people by 2025.
Since digital is relatively new, it’s constantly evolving. That is good news for marketers because it means you’ll always have new digital marketing opportunities to harness.
That said, marketers need to be careful. There are a lot of digital platforms available, and it’s easy to get overwhelmed by all the options.
Because email marketing is still one of the most effective ways to reach an audience, it’s one of the best digital media tools available.
Pros and Cons of Email Marketing
- Highly Targeted: With email marketing, you can easily target your core demographic or even specific types of users.
It can be segmented by location, age, gender, etc.
- Consistency: Email marketing is one of the few digital media options that allow you to target users consistently over time. That makes it highly effective at generating sales and improving ROI.
- Great for Branding: You can use email marketing to promote your brand’s personality. That builds brand loyalty and helps to create an emotional connection with your audience.
- Reach: Email marketing is one of the most effective ways to reach an audience.
- Easy to Use: Email marketing software is easy to use, even for beginners.
When to Use Email Marketing
Email marketing is an excellent tool for reaching a specific audience regularly. It’s also a great way to build brand loyalty and create an emotional connection with your customers.
Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
A Brief History of SEO
SEO started in the early days of the internet. The goal was to help search engines hone in and find websites, even if they weren’t well known.
Today, it’s one of the critical components of large marketing campaigns. It also helps to have SEO in place when you want to reach people through Google Ads or any other form of online ads.
How SEO Works
SEO works by optimizing a website’s content, structure, and on-page elements like titles, metatags, and anchor text for search engines. The point is to try and make it easy for search engines to crawl and index a site.
After that, you want to ensure that your site’s content is high quality and relevant to what people are searching for. You can do this by using keywords and phrases in your website’s content, titles, and metatags
What SEO Can Do for Your Business
SEO can help businesses achieve the following:
– Increased Traffic: When a website’s ranking improves, it gets more traffic from search engines.
– Increased Brand Awareness: People who find your site through search engines are more likely to become customers.
– Increased ROI: SEO is one of the most cost-effective ways to improve a website’s ranking and generate leads and sales.
When to Use SEO
SEO works with all sizes of businesses. It’s especially beneficial for small companies trying to compete with industry leaders in their niche, who may already have a better ranking on the SERPs.
Pros and Cons of SEO
Flexibility: SEO is highly flexible. You can implement them quickly, and the results are typically long-lasting.
SEO companies will work with you to develop a plan that’s tailored to your unique business goals. That makes it easy for them to switch things up as needed to generate new leads or increase company sales over time.
Requires Effort: SEO requires a lot of effort to see results. It’s not something that you can set and forget.
Can be Expensive: SEO can be expensive if you’re not careful. For this, you want to make sure you’re working with an experienced company that understands what they’re doing.
Social Media Marketing
A Brief History of Social Media Marketing
Social media marketing started in the early 2000s when Friendster and MySpace were popular. It didn’t really take off until the mid-2000s when Facebook was created.
The term “social media marketing” didn’t gain popularity until 2009, when it became clear that businesses could use social media to communicate with their followers and generate more revenue.
Today, social media marketing is one of the top ways for companies to reach their target audiences. It’s also one of the most effective ways to build brand awareness and create an emotional connection with customers.
How Social Media Marketing Works
Social media marketing works by creating content that’s relevant to your target audience and publishing it on social media platforms. You can also use social media to interact with followers and answer their questions.
What Social Media Marketing Can Do for Your Business?
Social media marketing can help businesses achieve the following:
- Increased Traffic: When a social media post is shared, it can go viral and reach many people.
- Improve Customer Support: social media allows companies to communicate directly with their customers.
- Gain Important Business Insights: Social media platforms allow businesses to track how people interact with their content. This information can be used to improve marketing strategies.
When to Use Social Media Marketing
Social media marketing can work for any business. It’s especially useful for companies in highly competitive industries, who need to generate leads without spending a fortune on advertising.
Pros and Cons of Social Media Marketing
Flexibility: Social media marketing is flexible because it’s easy to create multiple posts across different channels.
Targeted Audiences: social media helps you reach highly targeted audiences interested in your product or service.
Useful Insights: Social media platforms allow you to track how people interact with your posts. You can use that information to improve your strategies.
Highly Targeted: Social media marketing allows you to target highly specific audiences based on their interests, demographics, and behaviours.
Time Consuming: Creating social media posts can be time-consuming. You may need to hire a social media manager to keep up with your accounts.
Requires Technical Know-How: social media might be easy to use, but running a successful social media campaign is technical and complicated. You’ll need to work with an experienced company that understands the nuances of running a successful social media marketing campaign.