Optimizing the Capital Stack in Today’s Market

Optimizing the Capital Stack in Todays Market _ MediaOne SIngapore

Welcome, dear readers, to this exciting blog post where we delve into the world of finance and investment. Today, we’re going to explore a crucial concept that can significantly impact your financial success – the Capital Stack!

We’ll be discussing how to optimize it in today’s market and achieve happy and prosperous returns on your investments. So, let’s dive right in!

Understanding the Capital Stack:

Before we move on, let’s quickly understand what the Capital Stack is all about. Simply put, the Capital Stack refers to the different types of financing that make up the funding for a real estate project or a business venture. It’s like building a delicious cake, layer by layer, where each layer represents a different source of funding.

The different layers of the Capital Stack are usually arranged in a specific order, which determines the priority of repayment in case of financial distress or when profits are generated. The layers typically include equity, mezzanine debt, and senior debt. Optimizing this stack is crucial to ensure that your investment journey remains smooth and filled with happy financial surprises.

The Importance of Optimizing the Capital Stack:

Now, you might wonder why optimizing the Capital Stack is so important. Well, my dear readers, the way you structure your financing can significantly impact your returns and risk exposure. By optimizing the Capital Stack, you can minimize the overall cost of capital, enhance your financial flexibility, and ensure better alignment with your investment goals.

Additionally, a well-optimized Capital Stack can make your project more appealing to potential investors, as it showcases a well-thought-out plan that promises happy and profitable outcomes. Remember, a solid Capital Stack can be the key to unlock the door to financial success in today’s dynamic market.

Strategies for Optimizing the Capital Stack:

Finding the Right Equity Partner:

The first layer of the Capital Stack is often equity financing. Finding the right equity partner is essential, as they will share the risk and reward of the investment with you. Look for investors who align with your vision and goals, and who bring valuable expertise to the table. A happy and fruitful partnership can lead to better decision-making and overall success.

Leveraging Mezzanine Debt Smartly:

Mezzanine debt is a layer that sits between equity and senior debt. It typically comes with higher interest rates, but it can also offer more flexibility than senior debt. Using mezzanine debt smartly can help bridge the gap between the equity and senior debt, leading to a more optimized Capital Stack.

Negotiating Favorable Terms on Senior Debt:

Senior debt is the layer that holds the highest priority for repayment. Negotiating favorable terms, such as lower interest rates or longer repayment periods, can reduce the financial burden and contribute to a happier bottom line.

Diversifying Funding Sources:

Relying on a single source of funding can be risky. By diversifying your funding sources, you spread the risk and ensure that your project remains resilient even in challenging times. Explore different lenders, investors, and financial institutions to create a strong and happy Capital Stack.

Using Preferred Equity:

Preferred equity is a hybrid form of financing that combines elements of both debt and equity. It provides investors with a fixed return, similar to debt, but also offers the potential for additional upside, like equity. Incorporating preferred equity into your Capital Stack can be a clever way to optimize it, as it provides an attractive balance between risk and return.

Understanding the Cost of Capital:

To optimize your Capital Stack, it’s crucial to have a clear understanding of the cost of capital associated with each layer. The cost of capital refers to the expected return that investors demand for taking on a certain level of risk. By analyzing and comparing the costs of different sources of funding, you can make informed decisions about the best mix for your project.

Assessing Project Risk:

Every investment carries a certain level of risk, and understanding these risks is vital for a happy and successful Capital Stack optimization. Conduct a thorough risk assessment of your project, considering factors like market conditions, location, competition, and potential challenges. By identifying and mitigating risks, you can build a more robust Capital Stack that can weather uncertainties.

Timing is Key:

In the world of finance and investment, timing plays a crucial role. The timing of when you secure different layers of funding can impact the overall cost and feasibility of your project. Consider market conditions and interest rate trends when timing the acquisition of equity, mezzanine debt, and senior debt. This thoughtful approach can lead to cost savings and better financial outcomes.

Continuously Review and Adapt:

The financial landscape is ever-evolving, and what works today might not be as effective tomorrow. It’s essential to continuously review and adapt your Capital Stack optimization strategies to remain competitive and relevant in the market. Stay informed about the latest financial trends and regulations, and be open to adjusting your approach as needed.

Seek Professional Advice:

Optimizing the Capital Stack can be a complex process, and seeking professional advice can prove invaluable. Consult with financial advisors, investment experts, and legal professionals who have experience in structuring successful Capital Stacks. Their insights and expertise can help you navigate the intricacies of the financial world and create a happier and more lucrative investment journey.

Real-Life Examples of Successful Capital Stack Optimization:

To illustrate the impact of optimizing the Capital Stack, let’s take a look at two hypothetical real estate development projects.

Project A: Non-Optimized Capital Stack

In Project A, the developer relies heavily on a single source of funding – senior debt from a traditional bank. While the interest rates are relatively low, the strict terms and inflexibility of the bank’s financing put significant pressure on the project’s cash flow. Moreover, the high loan-to-value ratio increases the risk for both the developer and the bank.

As the project progresses, unexpected challenges arise, leading to cost overruns and delays. With limited financial flexibility, the developer struggles to secure additional funding or renegotiate terms with the bank. The lack of diversification in the Capital Stack leaves the project vulnerable, and the returns for the equity investors are compromised.

Project B: Optimized Capital Stack

In Project B, the developer takes a strategic approach to optimize the Capital Stack. They secure equity from a reputable real estate investment firm, which not only injects capital but also brings valuable industry expertise to the table. The developer also negotiates mezzanine debt with favorable terms, providing a bridge between equity and senior debt.

To further diversify the funding sources, the developer raises preferred equity from individual investors looking for stable returns with some upside potential. Finally, they secure senior debt from a mix of banks and private lenders, negotiating competitive interest rates and longer repayment periods.

With this optimized Capital Stack, Project B enjoys improved financial flexibility, reduced risk exposure, and enhanced cash flow management. When challenges arise, the diversified funding sources provide a safety net, allowing the project to weather the storm and continue towards success.

As you venture into the realm of optimizing the Capital Stack, it’s essential to stay mindful of certain common pitfalls and challenges that might come your way. Let’s explore some of these potential roadblocks and how to overcome them, ensuring that your journey towards a happy and prosperous Capital Stack optimization remains smooth.


While leveraging debt can be a valuable tool in optimizing the Capital Stack, overleveraging can lead to disastrous consequences. Taking on too much debt can put immense strain on the project’s cash flow, making it challenging to meet repayment obligations and causing financial distress. It’s crucial to strike the right balance between debt and equity, ensuring that your project remains financially viable and resilient.

To avoid overleveraging, conduct a thorough analysis of the project’s financials and consider various stress scenarios. Assess the debt service coverage ratio, which measures the project’s ability to meet its debt obligations, and avoid relying on overly optimistic projections. Remember, prudence and cautiousness can be your allies in achieving a happy and sustainable Capital Stack.

Inadequate Risk Assessment:

As the saying goes, “Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst.” Failing to assess and address potential risks can be detrimental to your Capital Stack optimization efforts. Risks can come in various forms, such as changes in market conditions, regulatory hurdles, construction delays, and unexpected expenses.

Work with a team of experts to conduct a comprehensive risk analysis for your project. Identify both internal and external risks, and develop contingency plans to mitigate their impact. A well-prepared project is better equipped to handle challenges and maintain a happy and successful Capital Stack.

Lack of Alignment Among Stakeholders:

When optimizing the Capital Stack, it’s essential to ensure that all stakeholders involved in the project are aligned with the same goals and vision. Misalignment among investors, lenders, and developers can lead to conflicting interests and decision-making, potentially derailing the project.

Transparent communication and collaboration are vital in fostering alignment among stakeholders. Share your project’s objectives, financial projections, and risk mitigation strategies with all parties involved. When everyone is on the same page, it paves the way for a harmonious and happy Capital Stack optimization journey.

Ignoring Exit Strategies:

A successful Capital Stack optimization involves not only getting the project off the ground but also planning for its eventual exit or refinancing. Ignoring exit strategies can leave you in a bind when it’s time to repay investors or lenders, potentially leading to rushed decisions and unfavorable outcomes.

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Consider multiple exit scenarios, such as selling the property, refinancing, or restructuring the Capital Stack. Stay informed about market trends and capital flows to identify the best time and method for exiting the investment. A well-thought-out exit strategy ensures a happy conclusion to your investment journey.

Disregarding Tax Implications:

Taxes play a significant role in shaping the financial outcomes of any investment. Disregarding tax implications when optimizing the Capital Stack can result in unexpected tax burdens, reducing your overall returns.

Consult with tax experts who can help you understand the tax implications of each layer in the Capital Stack. Consider tax-efficient financing structures and take advantage of available tax benefits. By being tax-savvy, you can ensure a happier and more financially rewarding investment experience.

Overlooking the Impact of Market Conditions:

The real estate market and the broader economy are subject to fluctuations. Overlooking the impact of market conditions when optimizing your Capital Stack can lead to misguided decisions and missed opportunities.

Stay updated on current market trends and forecasts. Analyze how changes in interest rates, inflation, and demand might affect your project’s financial performance. Being proactive and adaptive to market conditions will make your Capital Stack more resilient and successful.

Rushing the Process:

Optimizing the Capital Stack is a nuanced and intricate process that requires careful consideration and planning. Rushing through the process to secure funding quickly can lead to suboptimal results and missed opportunities for better financing terms.

Allow yourself ample time to explore different funding options, negotiate terms, and conduct due diligence. A well-prepared and unhurried approach will yield a more successful and happy Capital Stack optimization.

Value Engineering:

Value engineering is a method that involves scrutinizing every aspect of your project to identify opportunities for cost savings without compromising on quality or functionality. By conducting a thorough value engineering analysis, you can optimize the allocation of funds across different layers of the Capital Stack.

Collaborate with architects, engineers, and construction experts to explore alternative materials, design modifications, or construction methods that can reduce expenses. Cost-effective decisions in the early stages of the project can positively impact the entire Capital Stack, leading to better financial outcomes and a happier investment experience.

Green Financing:

In today’s market, sustainability and environmental consciousness are gaining prominence. Green financing options, such as green bonds or loans, offer favorable terms for projects that meet certain environmental standards. Integrating green financing into your Capital Stack not only helps you attract socially responsible investors but also brings potential cost savings through energy-efficient measures.

Green building certifications, like LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), can enhance the marketability of your project and increase its value. As the world moves towards a greener future, embracing sustainable practices in your Capital Stack can set you apart and contribute to a more sustainable and happier investment journey.

Crowd Funding and Real Estate Syndication:

Crowdfunding and real estate syndication are innovative approaches to raising capital for your project. They involve pooling funds from multiple investors to finance the investment, often facilitated through online platforms.

Crowdfunding allows you to access a larger pool of investors, while real estate syndication involves forming partnerships with experienced sponsors who pool funds and manage the project. Both methods offer opportunities to diversify funding sources and optimize the Capital Stack by blending various forms of equity and debt.

Joint Ventures:

Collaborating with other developers or investors through joint ventures can be a game-changer for optimizing your Capital Stack. Joint ventures enable you to combine expertise, resources, and financial capabilities, thereby increasing the scale and success potential of the project.

When forming a joint venture, be clear about roles, responsibilities, and profit-sharing arrangements. A well-structured joint venture can unlock new opportunities, expand your network, and lead to a happy and mutually beneficial investment experience.

Alternative Financing Instruments:

Beyond traditional equity and debt, consider exploring alternative financing instruments to diversify your Capital Stack. Examples include convertible debt, revenue-sharing agreements, or profit-sharing structures. These instruments can offer unique advantages and provide flexibility in managing the financial aspects of your project.

Before adopting alternative financing options, seek legal and financial advice to ensure compliance with regulations and to understand the potential implications on your project’s financials. The strategic use of alternative instruments can lead to a more innovative and happy Capital Stack.

Secondary Markets and Exit Strategies:

To optimize the Capital Stack effectively, it’s crucial to consider the exit strategies not only at the project level but also at the Capital Stack level. Secondary markets provide a platform for buying and selling interests in real estate projects or investment portfolios.

By monitoring secondary market trends, you can explore opportunities to restructure the Capital Stack or take advantage of market conditions to optimize your returns. Remember that an exit strategy is not just a means to end the investment but also a pathway to a new beginning, possibly leading to fresh investment opportunities.

Leveraging Technology:

In the digital age, technology can revolutionize the way you manage your Capital Stack. Utilize financial management software, data analytics tools, and project management platforms to streamline communication, track performance, and identify areas for improvement.

Technology can help you stay organized, make data-driven decisions, and ensure transparency among stakeholders. By leveraging the power of technology, you can optimize your Capital Stack with greater precision and efficiency, leading to a happier and more successful investment journey.

Building Strong Relationships with Lenders and Investors:

In the world of finance, relationships matter a great deal. Building strong and mutually beneficial relationships with lenders and investors can open doors to better financing opportunities and terms. Establishing trust and credibility through transparent communication and a track record of successful projects can make lenders more inclined to offer competitive rates and flexible terms.

Likewise, nurturing positive relationships with investors fosters confidence in your project and can lead to repeat investments and referrals. A network of satisfied investors can be a valuable asset as you venture into new projects and continue your Capital Stack optimization journey.

Managing Debt Effectively:

While debt can be a powerful tool in optimizing the Capital Stack, it’s crucial to manage it wisely. High levels of debt can increase financial risk and reduce cash flow, making it challenging to weather economic downturns. Strive to maintain a healthy debt-to-equity ratio and avoid excessive reliance on short-term debt.

Consider refinancing options when interest rates are favorable, and explore opportunities to reduce debt through strong project performance. A well-managed debt portfolio contributes to a stable and happy Capital Stack that can weather financial storms with resilience.

Leveraging Tax Incentives and Government Programs:

Governments often offer tax incentives and financial assistance programs to promote specific types of investments or industries. These incentives can include tax credits, deductions, grants, or low-interest loans. Leveraging these opportunities can significantly impact the financial feasibility and profitability of your project.

Stay informed about local, regional, and national programs that may align with your project’s goals. Engage with tax advisors and government agencies to explore the incentives available to you. Maximizing these opportunities will not only optimize your Capital Stack but also contribute to the greater good through job creation and economic development.

Conducting Market Research and Feasibility Studies:

Thorough market research and feasibility studies are foundational to the success of your Capital Stack optimization efforts. Understand the demand and supply dynamics in the market, analyze competitors, and gauge the potential returns on your investment.

A well-executed feasibility study provides valuable insights into project viability, financial projections, and potential risks. Armed with this knowledge, you can fine-tune your Capital Stack to align with market demands, enhancing your chances of a happy and lucrative investment journey.

Staying Adaptable in a Dynamic Market:

The financial landscape is ever-changing, with market conditions, regulations, and investor preferences evolving over time. Embrace adaptability as a guiding principle in your Capital Stack optimization journey. Be prepared to adjust your strategy, embrace new financing opportunities, and pivot when necessary.

Keep a keen eye on emerging trends and innovative financing models. The ability to respond swiftly and intelligently to market shifts will keep your Capital Stack optimized, ensuring you stay ahead of the curve in today’s fast-paced market.

Emphasizing Risk Mitigation and Contingency Planning:

No investment is entirely risk-free, but prudent risk mitigation and contingency planning can safeguard your Capital Stack from unexpected challenges. Identify potential risks and develop comprehensive contingency plans to address them. Contingency funds, insurance coverage, and risk-sharing arrangements can all contribute to a more secure and happy investment experience.

Conduct regular risk assessments throughout the project’s lifecycle, making adjustments as needed. By being proactive in managing risks, you fortify your Capital Stack against potential setbacks, fostering a sense of confidence and security among stakeholders.

Focusing on Long-Term Sustainability:

While optimizing the Capital Stack is about achieving short-term financial goals, it’s essential to consider the long-term sustainability and impact of your investments. Embrace environmental, social, and governance (ESG) principles that align with responsible and ethical investment practices.

A focus on sustainability can attract socially conscious investors and enhance the marketability of your project. Moreover, it contributes to building a positive reputation and strengthens your brand as a developer or investor committed to making a difference in the world.

In Strategic Portfolio Diversification:

As an astute investor or developer, you should think beyond individual projects and consider creating a well-diversified investment portfolio. Diversification spreads risk across multiple assets, reducing the impact of any single investment’s underperformance.

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By optimizing your Capital Stack across various projects, locations, and industries, you can create a robust and resilient investment portfolio. Each project’s risk profile and financial structure should complement one another, leading to a harmonious and happy overall portfolio performance.

Utilizing Recourse vs. Non-Recourse Financing:

When structuring the Capital Stack, consider the implications of recourse and non-recourse financing. Recourse financing allows lenders to seek additional assets or personal guarantees from borrowers if the project fails to meet debt obligations. Non-recourse financing, on the other hand, limits lenders to only the project’s assets in case of default.

By understanding the advantages and disadvantages of both financing types, you can select the most suitable approach for each layer in your Capital Stack. Non-recourse financing can offer greater protection to your personal assets, while recourse financing might provide access to lower interest rates. Weigh these factors carefully to create a balanced and secure Capital Stack.

Embracing Innovation and Technology:

In today’s dynamic market, technology is transforming the way we invest and manage financial assets. Embrace innovation and leverage technology to optimize your Capital Stack more effectively.

Platforms and software that facilitate real-time data analysis, risk modeling, and investor communication can streamline decision-making and enhance transparency. Utilize virtual collaboration tools to efficiently engage with stakeholders, regardless of geographical barriers. Integrating tech-driven solutions into your investment practices will empower you to make informed decisions and maintain a happy and well-connected Capital Stack.

Accounting for Economic Cycles:

Economic cycles are a natural part of any market, and they can significantly impact real estate and investment performance. To optimize your Capital Stack, be mindful of where the economy stands in its cycle and tailor your investment strategy accordingly.

In prosperous economic times, you may consider more aggressive financing structures, while conservative approaches might be preferable during economic downturns. By adapting your Capital Stack to the economic climate, you can maximize returns and navigate the market’s twists and turns with confidence.

Engaging in Continuous Education:

The world of finance is ever-evolving, with new regulations, investment vehicles, and market trends emerging regularly. Commit to continuous education to stay at the forefront of the industry and enhance your Capital Stack optimization skills.

Participate in seminars, workshops, and industry events to learn from experts and expand your knowledge. Engaging with fellow investors and developers in networking groups can also provide valuable insights and opportunities for collaboration. By nurturing a learning mindset, you equip yourself to tackle the challenges of tomorrow with innovation and expertise.

Considering Inflation and Currency Risks:

Inflation and currency risks can erode the purchasing power of your investment returns over time. When optimizing the Capital Stack, take these factors into account and explore strategies to protect against potential devaluation.

Consider inflation-adjusted financing options, currency hedging instruments, or assets with intrinsic value that can act as a hedge against inflation. By proactively managing these risks, you safeguard your Capital Stack’s long-term stability and ensure happy and sustainable returns.

Harnessing the Power of Data Analytics:

In the digital age, data is a precious asset that can inform your investment decisions and fine-tune your Capital Stack. Adopt data analytics tools to gain deeper insights into market trends, investor behavior, and project performance.

Data-driven decision-making enables you to identify areas for improvement, optimize financial models, and allocate resources efficiently. By harnessing the power of data, you position yourself for success and greater returns in the ever-evolving financial landscape.

Dear investors, as we delve even deeper into the realm of optimizing the Capital Stack, let us explore some case studies and real-life examples that highlight the power and impact of implementing these strategies in various investment scenarios.

Case Study 1: “Green Development Oasis”

In this case study, let’s examine a real estate development project called “Green Development Oasis.” The vision behind this project is to create a sustainable and eco-friendly residential community that promotes green living and environmental consciousness.

Capital Stack Optimization Strategy:

To achieve the goals of the “Green Development Oasis,” the developers strategically optimized their Capital Stack by incorporating various sustainable financing options and innovative approaches:

  • Green Financing: The developers tapped into the growing trend of green financing by securing green loans and grants that incentivize eco-friendly initiatives. These financial instruments came with favorable terms, including lower interest rates and extended repayment periods.
  • Energy-Efficient Incentives: The project qualified for government incentives and tax credits due to its commitment to energy efficiency. The developers utilized these incentives to lower their upfront costs and bolster the overall returns on the investment.
  • Crowdfunding: To engage with environmentally conscious investors and involve the community in the project, the developers also launched a crowdfunding campaign. The campaign allowed individuals to invest smaller amounts and become part of the “Green Development Oasis” vision.
  • ESG-Focused Equity Partners: The developers sought out equity partners who aligned with their ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance) principles. By collaborating with investors who shared their vision, the developers ensured that the project’s values remained at the forefront of decision-making.


The “Green Development Oasis” quickly gained traction in the market due to its innovative approach and commitment to sustainability. Investors were drawn to the project’s eco-consciousness, and the crowdfunding campaign allowed community members to participate actively.

The optimized Capital Stack not only attracted investors but also garnered positive attention from media and local authorities. The project’s sustainable reputation helped expedite permitting processes and eased regulatory hurdles, further enhancing its success.

Ultimately, the “Green Development Oasis” became a beacon of responsible development in the region, showcasing how an optimized Capital Stack can create not only financial prosperity but also positive social and environmental impact.

Case Study 2: “Tech Innovation Hub”

In this case study, let’s explore a venture capital investment in a tech innovation hub. The goal is to optimize the Capital Stack to attract the brightest minds in the tech industry and fuel groundbreaking technological advancements.

Capital Stack Optimization Strategy:

To propel the “Tech Innovation Hub” forward and ensure its competitiveness in the market, the venture capitalists employed several strategies to optimize the Capital Stack:

Angel Investors and Venture Capital: The Capital Stack began with angel investors who provided seed funding to support early-stage projects and innovations. As the hub expanded, venture capitalists joined in to inject additional capital and accelerate growth.

Government Grants and Research Funds: The “Tech Innovation Hub” tapped into government grants and research funds that were earmarked for technological advancement. These additional sources of funding allowed the hub to support innovative research and development projects.

Corporate Partnerships: To foster collaboration between startups and established corporations, the “Tech Innovation Hub” formed strategic partnerships with tech giants. These partnerships provided access to resources, mentorship, and potential exit opportunities, benefiting both the startups and the corporations.

IPO and Exit Strategies: As the startups within the hub matured, the venture capitalists facilitated initial public offerings (IPOs) to provide exit opportunities for early-stage investors. This approach allowed the venture capitalists to realize returns and reinvest in new innovative ventures.


The optimized Capital Stack of the “Tech Innovation Hub” fostered an environment where groundbreaking technological advancements thrived. The hub’s reputation attracted top talent from around the world, making it a hotbed for innovation and cutting-edge research.

With a well-diversified Capital Stack, the “Tech Innovation Hub” remained resilient during economic downturns and market fluctuations. The mix of funding sources allowed the hub to continue supporting startups, even during challenging times.

The success of the startups within the hub led to several IPOs, providing profitable exit opportunities for the venture capitalists and angel investors. These successes, in turn, attracted more startups and investors, creating a virtuous cycle of innovation and financial prosperity.


As we draw near the end of this remarkable journey to optimize the Capital Stack in today’s market, we celebrate your unwavering dedication and curiosity in the world of finance and investment. Armed with a wealth of knowledge, expert strategies, and real-life case studies, you now possess the tools to create a truly happy and prosperous investment experience.

Remember that each investment endeavor is unique, and there is no one-size-fits-all approach to optimizing the Capital Stack. Embrace the journey with an open mind, always seeking opportunities to grow and learn from both successes and challenges.

As you embark on new ventures, maintain a balance between ambition and prudence. Seek out opportunities for collaboration, diversification, and sustainability to fortify your Capital Stack against risks and uncertainties.

Most importantly, let your passion for investment be driven not just by financial gains but also by a genuine desire to make a positive impact on the world. Be mindful of your social and environmental responsibility, and invest in projects that contribute to a happier and more sustainable future.

Now, dear investors, go forth with confidence and joy, for you possess the knowledge and wisdom to navigate the complexities of finance and create a legacy of successful investments. May your Capital Stack optimization endeavors lead you to new heights of prosperity, fulfillment, and happiness in today’s market and beyond!

Happy optimizing, and may your journey be filled with bountiful returns and infinite possibilities!

About the Author

Tom Koh

Tom is the CEO and Principal Consultant of MediaOne, a leading digital marketing agency. He has consulted for MNCs like Canon, Maybank, Capitaland, SingTel, ST Engineering, WWF, Cambridge University, as well as Government organisations like Enterprise Singapore, Ministry of Law, National Galleries, NTUC, e2i, SingHealth. His articles are published and referenced in CNA, Straits Times, MoneyFM, Financial Times, Yahoo! Finance, Hubspot, Zendesk, CIO Advisor.


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